Ubuntu Commands

4 Oct

Ubuntu Commands list :

Terminal : Ctrl + Alt + T

File & Directory Commands :


The pwd command will allow you to know in which directory you’re located


The ls command will show you (‘list’) the files in your current directory.


The cd command will allow you to change directories.


The cp command will make a copy of a file for you.


The mv command will move a file to a different location or will rename a file.


Use this command to remove or delete a file in your directory.


The rmdir command will delete an empty directory.


The mkdir command will allow you to create directories.


The man command is used to show you the manual of other commands.


The sudo command is used to perform file operations on files that the Root User would only be allowed to change.

More Info : cd

To navigate into the root directory, use “cd /”

To navigate to your home directory, use “cd” or “cd ~”

To navigate up one directory level, use “cd ..”

To navigate to the previous directory (or back), use “cd -”

Running a File Within a Directory :


System Information Commands :


The df command displays filesystem disk space usage for all mounted partitions.


The du command displays the disk usage for a directory.


The free command displays the amount of free and used memory in the system.


displays information on your Linux system, running processes and system resources.

uname -a:

prints all system information, including machine name, kernel name & version, and a few other details.

lsb_release -a :

The lsb_release command with the -a option prints version information for the Linux release you’re running.

1)Command privileges.

sudo command – run command as root
sudo su – root shell open
sudo su user – open shell as a user
sudo -k – forget your password sudo
gksudo command – sudo visual dialog (GNOME)
kdesudo command – sudo visual dialog (KDE)
sudo visudo – edit / etc / sudoers
gksudo nautilus – root file manager (GNOME)
kdesudo konqueror – root file manager (KDE)
passwd – change your password

2)Command Network

ifconfig – displays information network
iwconfig – displays information from wireless
sudo iwlist scan – scan wireless networks
sudo /etc/init.d/networking restart – reset the network
(file) /etc/network/interfaces – manual configuration
ifup interface – bring online interface
ifdown interface – disable interface

3)Commands Display

sudo /etc/init.d/gdm restart – reset X (Gnome)
sudo /etc/init.d/kdm restart – reset X (KDE)
(file) /etc/X11/xorg.conf – show Configuration
sudo dpkg-reconfigure – reconfigure xserver-xorg-phigh – reset configuration X
Ctrl+Alt+Bksp – X display reset if frozen
Ctrl+Alt+FN – switch to tty N
Ctrl+Alt+F7 – switch back to X display

4)Commands Service System.

start service – service to start work (Upstart)
stop service – service to stop working (Upstart)
status service – check if service is running (Upstart)
/etc/init.d/service start – start service (SysV)
/etc/init.d/service stop – stop service (SysV)
/etc/init.d/service status – check service (SysV)
/etc/init.d/service restart – reset service (SysV)
runlevel – get current runlevel

5)Commands for Firewall.

ufw enable – turn on the firewall
ufw disable – turn off the firewall
ufw default allow – allow all connections by default
ufw default deny – drop all connections by default
ufw status – current rules and
ufw allow port – to allow traffic on port
ufw deny port – port block
ufw deny from ip – ip block

6)Command System.

lsb_release -a – get the version of Ubuntu
uname -r – get kernel version
uname -a – get all the information kernel

7)Commands for Package Manager.

apt-get update – refresh updates available
apt-get upgrade – update all packages
apt-get dist-upgrade – version update
apt-get install pkg – installing pkg
apt-get remove pkg – uninstall pkg
apt-get autoremove – removing packages obsotletos
apt-get -f install – try to fix packages
dpkg –configure -a – try to fix a broken package
dpkg -i pkg.deb – install file pkg.deb
(file) /etc/apt/sources.list – list of repositories APT

8)Special Packages For commands.

ubuntu-desktop – Setting the standard Ubuntu
kubuntu-desktop – KDE Desktop
xubuntu-desktop – desktop XFCE
ubuntu-minimal – core earnings Ubuntu
ubuntu-standard – the standard utilities Ubuntu
ubuntu-restricted-extras – not free, but useful
kubuntu-restricted-extras – ditto KDE
xubuntu-restricted-extras – ditto XFCE
build-essential – packages used to compile
linux-image-generic – latest generic kernel image
linux-headers-generic – latest headlines

9)Applications commands.

nautilus – File Manager (GNOME)
dolphin – File Manager (KDE)
konqueror – Web browser (KDE)
kate – text editor (KDE)
gedit – text editor (GNOME)

Referred by :


2)Nikesh Jauhari


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